4.3 Indonesia

4.3.1 Indonesian Center for Estate Crops Research and Development

(1) Place
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 1, Bogor 1611

(2) Process flow
Seeds of Jatropha curcas are produced here.  Seeding and planting the seedling on plantation.  Before rain season, pruning the branches, and harvesting capsules during dry season several times.  Seeds are taken out from thecapsules, and dried.  The seeds are distributed to farmers.

(3) Feedstock, biooil utilization, scale, and feedstock heating value. 
The scale is 30 ha.

(4) Amount of product and its heating value
Selection of species are researched.  The seeds yields are estimated 0.27 to 0.59 ton/ha at 1st year.  Higher yields are expected after 2nd year.

(5) Mass balance and energy balance.
Pruned branches are used as mulching.

(6) Economical balance, initial cost, and operating cost
Cost benefit analysis is examined as shown in Table 4.3.1-1.

Table 4.3.1-1 Cost benefit analysis result.

gAdditional income from intercroppingh is decreased after 3rd year, because growth stock of Jatropha covers the part of farmland.  First 2 years, gInput costh and gLabor costh are higher, because of planting and maintenance of Jatropha. 

(7) Number of persons needed for operation
30 people are working at this plantation, and therefore 1 person is need for 1 ha plantation.

(8) The reason of introducing the plant, problems solved and unsolved
National energy issue is the reason of focusing the Jatropha.  They just started, and had no experience.  The center studies cultivation, etc. 

(9) Participation of farmers, municipality, or co-operatives, and support from university, institutes, or NGO
Not applicable

(10) Means to make the process economically feasible, key points for success, and selection of main body for the plant operation
Intercropping is a key point.  Production of seeds of Jatropha is expected to increase the income.

(11) Effect on farmerfs income and employment in the district
See (6).  Income is expected to increase, and employment is also expected to increase.

(12) Framework for the introduction and development of human resources
Not applicable.

(13) Situation of agriculture in the district (utilization of land, sustainability of the agriculture)
Soil suitability map for Jatropha is shown in Fig. 4.3.1-1.  East Borneo, east Jawa, etc are candidates.  Right now, maize is mainly produced there; rice can not be produced due to poor soil or low rain fall.  Sustainability by means of intercropping is expected.

Fig. 4.3.1-1 Soil suitability map

(14) Possibility of local recycling agriculture with Jatropha curcas
Not applicable.  Farmer will produce and sell seeds. 

(15) Possibility of biooil and/or biodiesel supply and energy utilization in the district
Not applicable.  See 4.3.2. 

(16) Miscellaneous
Again: intercropping is a key point, and farmerfs income and employment are expected to increase.

(17) Contact person, homepage, and supporting body
Dr. Ir. Hasnam is a contact person.

(18) Photos
Photos taken during the visit are shown from the next page

Fig. 4.3.1-2  Meeting with delegation

Fig. 4.3.1-3  Explanation how to prune by Dr. Ir. Hasnam

Fig. 4.3.1-4  Plantation

Fig. 4.3.1-5  Plantation

Fig. 4.3.1-6  Plantation

Fig. 4.3.1-7  Seedling

Fig. 4.3.1-8  Flower

Fig. 4.3.1-9  Fruits (capsules)

Fig. 4.3.1-10  Seeds drying

Fig. 4.3.1-11  Fruit processing machine

Fig. 4.3.1-12  Fruit processing machine

Fig.. 4.3.1-13  Hammer in the fruit processing machine

Fig. 4.3.1-14  Press machine

Fig. 4.3.1.-15  Obtained oil


4.3.2 Biotech Center, BPPT

(1) Place
Gedung 630, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong,

(2) Process flow
The cottage technology they developed is as follows:
  Jatropex is liquid of growth hormone.
  Jatrosin is liquid of disinfection.
  Jatrodix is liquid of budding.
  Jatrofert is liquid of symbiosis.
They collect brunches of jatropha and cut the stems to the length of 20 cm.  Then, they apply those liquids to the stems.  After the process, they need 7-10 days in a greenhouse.  Then, they replant the stems in small pots. After the process they need 7-10 days in a greenhouse. Then they carry the pots out of the greenhouse.  The government plans to plant jatropha on degraded lands of 3 million ha in Indonesia.  The total of the degraded lands is 22 million ha.

(3) Feedstock, energy utilization, scale, and feedstock heating value. 
They use a stem of about the length at 20 cm of jatropha trees.

(4) Amount of product and its heating value
They study the plant technologies.

(5) Mass balance and energy balance.
They use natural sunshine.

(6) Economical balance, initial cost, and operating cost
The technologies developed by this center are used non-commercially.

(7) Number of persons needed for operation
They need one worker for cutting plants and one worker for re-planting.

(8) The reason of introducing the plant, problems solved and unsolved
They consider the transportation of the plant is expensive. They plan to transfer the plant technology to local governments and companies and found many plant centers in a small scale in Indonesia.

(9) Participation of farmers, municipality, or co-operatives, and support from university, institutes, or NGO
They plan to transfer the found a plant center using the technology developed by this center in 2007.
They plan to transfer the plant technology to local governments and companies and found many plant centers in a small scale in Indonesia.

(10) Means to make the process economically feasible, key points for success, and selection of main body for the plant operation
A local government plans to found a plant center using the technology developed by this center in 2007.

(11) Effect on farmerfs income and employment in the district
The center develops the plant technologies. Local governments are in charge of considering those effects.

(12) Framework for the introduction and development of human resources
They plan to transfer the plant technology to local governments and companies and found many plant centers in a small scale in Indonesia.

(13) Situation of agriculture in the district (utilization of land, sustainability of the agriculture)
  Not applicable.

(14) Possibility of local recycling agriculture with Jatropha curcas
  Not applicable.

(15) Possibility of biooil and/or biodiesel supply and energy utilization in the district
  Not applicable.

(16) Miscellaneous
There are 40 researchers in this center.

(17) Contact person, homepage, and supporting body
Dr. Wahy Purbowasito S. is a contact person.

(18) Photos
Photos taken during the visit are shown below. 

Fig. 4.3.2-1  Cutting brunches

Fig. 4.3.2-2  Jatropha stems and jatrodix

Fig. 4.3.2-3  Jatropha stems with jatrodix.

Fig. 4.3.2-4  Jatropha stems in a greenhouse.

Fig. 4.3.2-5  Jatropha stems in a greenhouse.

Fig. 4.3.2-6  Replanting of jatropha stems

Fig. 4.3.2-7  Jatropha tree at 5 years old.


4.3.3 Head for Renewable Energy Division, Technological Energy Research Center under BPPT

(1) Place
Kawasan Puspitek Serpong, Tangerang 15314

(2) Process flow
This center develops energy utilization technologies about jatropha oil.
They developed a small scale oil mill plant of jatropha oil. They plan to equip 288 sites of the oil mill plants in Indonesia in 2007.

(3) Feedstock, energy utilization, scale, and feedstock heating value. 
The oil ratio of the oil to the seed is about 35-40%.
The recovery ratio of the oil to the seed is about 25%.

(4) Amount of product and its heating value
Jatropha oil and jatropha cake are produced.

(5) Mass balance and energy balance.
The recovery ratio of the oil to the seed is about 25%.

(6) Economical balance, initial cost, and operating cost
The price of Jatropha seed is about 750 IDR/kg. The recovery ratio of the oil to the seed is about 25%. The feedstock cost of jatropha oil is 3000-3500 IDR/kg.
The oil mill cost (including de-gumming) is 500 INR /liter-oil.
The production cost of biodiesel is 1000 IDR/L.
The international price of kerosene is 5000 IDR/l but Indonesian Government subsidy 60% (3000 IDR/l) of the price and the retail price of kerosene is 2000 IDR/L.

(7) Number of persons needed for operation
  Unknown.

(8) The reason of introducing the plant, problems solved and unsolved
The reason is to use lamp and cooking stove using jatropha oil in rural areas.

(9) Participation of farmers, municipality, or co-operatives, and support from university, institutes, or NGO
Local government will be co-operatives.

(10) Means to make the process economically feasible, key points for success, and selection of main body for the plant operation
  See (6).

(11) Effect on farmerfs income and employment in the district
The seed of jatropha is about 750 IDR/kg.

(12) Framework for the introduction and development of human resources
  Not applicable.

(13) Situation of agriculture in the district (utilization of land, sustainability of the agriculture)
  Not applicable.

(14) Possibility of local recycling agriculture with Jatropha curcas
  Not applicable.

(15) Possibility of biooil and/or biodiesel supply and energy utilization in the district
Jatoropha oil is used for lamp and cooking stove in rural areas.

(16) Miscellaneous
They exhibit a lamp of jatropha oil, a cooking stove of jatropha oil, and a cooking stove of jatropha cake.

(17) Contact person, homepage, and supporting body
Dr. Faisal Ishom is a contact person.

(18) Photos
Photos taken during the visit are shown below.

Fig. 4.3.3-1  Jatropha oil mill (prototype)

Fig. 4.3.3-2  Jatropha oil mill (demonstration)

Fig. 4.3.3-3  Jatropha cake

Fig. 4.3.3-4  Cooking stove of jatropha cake

Fig. 4.3.3-5  Cooking stove of jatropha oil

Fig. 4.3.3-6  Lamp of jatropha oil


4.3.4 Balai Rekayasa Disain & Sistem Teknologi, Engineering Center, BPPT

(1) Place
Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Serpong, Gedung 232

(2) Process flow
The process is a conventional process of BDF (including pretreatment, trans-esterification, water-washing, and distillation). The specification of BDF is within acceptable values.

(3) Feedstock, energy utilization, scale, and feedstock heating value. 
Main feedstock is CPO. Coconut oil, jatropha oil are also used.
Demonstration plant of biodiesel at 1t/hour is in operation.
Demonstration plant of biodiesel at 8t/hour will be built in 2007 at this site.

(4) Amount of product and its heating value
  See (3).

(5) Mass balance and energy balance.
The weight-efficiency is 92% about CPO. Free fatty acid(5%) and tri-g
yceride (3%) are lost.
Free fatty acid(5%) of jatrophaoil is up to 10%.

(6) Economical balance, initial cost, and operating cost
The construction cost of the 8t/hour plant is 4-5 billion INR.
The price of CPO is 600$/ton (5400 IDR/L) and the international price of petro-diesel is 500$/ton. The situation of the costs prevents the diffusion of the plant in Indonesia.

(7) Number of persons needed for operation
  Unknown.

(8) The reason of introducing the plant, problems solved and unsolved
The reason is to supply transportation fuel.

(9) Participation of farmers, municipality, or co-operatives, and support from university, institutes, or NGO
Local government will be co-operatives.
The transportation cost of the feedstock is expensive and the plants will be distributed-plants.

(10) Means to make the process economically feasible, key points for success, and selection of main body for the plant operation
  See (6).

(11) Effect on farmerfs income and employment in the district
  Not applicable.

(12) Framework for the introduction and development of human resources
  Not applicable.

(13) Situation of agriculture in the district (utilization of land, sustainability of the agriculture)
  Not applicable.

(14) Possibility of local recycling agriculture with Jatropha curcas
  Not applicable.

(15) Possibility of biooil and/or biodiesel supply and energy utilization in the district
  Not applicable.

(16) Miscellaneous
The retail price of biodiesel to be mixed with petro-diesel is 8000 INR per 700 ml that includes the cost of the bottle of 2000 INR.

(17) Contact person, homepage, and supporting body
Dr. Faisal Ishom is a contact person.

(18) Photos
Photos taken during the visit are shown below.

Fig. 4.3.4-1  Retail product of biodiesel.

Fig. 4.3.4-2  Biodiesel plant at 1t/hour.

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