6. Conclusions

The three technologies investigated in this study; small-scale biomethanation, jatropha plantation, large-scale ethanol production from agricultural crops; are all effective for improving farmers’ standard of living.  They can be also effective in terms of sustainable agriculture since they lead to reduction of fossil fuel use in rural area.  However, detailed LCA calculation is needed for jatropha and ethanol production.  Sufficient information was not available for jatropha because the study has just begun.  The LCA effectiveness of ethanol production is still controversial all over the world, and the detail study is needed for each case.  The reduction in biodiversity is avoided by intercropping or using semi-arid lands.  What is important for prevailing these technologies are farmers’ accessibility to the biomass utilization or collection site and education.