5.2 Discussions on results on Indonesia
The productivity of jatropha oil is is about 1 t/ha and is less than that of palm. However, jatropha can be produced on degraded lands where palm cannot be produced. In addition, jatropha oil contains toxicity and jatropha oil is used only for fuel and not used for food.
The government of Indonesia starts jatropha plantations in rural areas in 2007 and plans to enlarge the plantations at 3Mha in the long future. The cultivation techniques of jatropha are developed in research centers, and the techniques will be proven in rural areas in Indonesia in 2007. The government plans to set up oil mills in a small scale in 288 sites in Indonesia and the jatropha oil will be used for fuels of lamps and cooking stoves in rural areas.
Intercropping of jatropha will increase income of farmers. Advantages of jatropha are that the pressed residues of the jatropha seeds can be used for cooking fuel in rural areas, that there is no conflict between jatropha oil and food, and that jatropha is produced on the area where palm oil cannot be planted.
The price of jatropha seed is about 750 IDR/kg. The recovery ratio of the oil to the seed is about 25%. The feedstock cost of jatropha oil is 3000-3500 IDR/kg. The oil mill cost (including de-gumming) is 500 INR /liter-oil. The production cost of biodiesel is 1000 IDR/L. The international price of kerosene is 5000 IDR/l but Indonesian Government subsidy 60% (3000 IDR/l) of the price and the retail price of kerosene is 2000 IDR/L.
The yield of jatorpha oil is low presently and the jatropha might not be a good candidate of fuel crops. Since there is much saturated fatty acid in jatropha oil, it is good for transportation fuels. However, there is much free fatty acid at 10-15%, and methyl-esterification using a conventional alkali catalyst technology is technically expected to be difficult.
The production of jatropha in a large scale has just started and the sustainability is unknown.
The toxicity of jatropha for a fuel use is not analyzed.
There are many unknown characters about jatropha and the future research about jatropha will be expected.